Summa Theologica and The Five Ways: Proofs for the Existence of God, The Cosmological Argument

Introduction and Context:Up until Aquinas in the 13th Century, the church’s (where academia existed) doctrine was neo-Platonic.  That is, it followed the philosophy of Plato.  Why does this matter?  Recall that beginning with Plato and Aristotle, a major debate can be traced through the history of philosophy:  Is knowledge accessed internally through a priori introspection […]

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Russell’s Argument for Matter and Criticism of Berkeley’s Idealism

Before reading this post it is recommended but not necessary that you read the prior post on Berkeley since, in the first part, Russell is responding to his arguments.Introduction and ContextRussell is doing two things in Ch. 2 of The Problems of Philosophy.  The overall project can be viewed as a proposed solution to Descartes’ skepticism: i.e, […]

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